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Paper: Astronomers and Observatories in Egypt During the Period 969–1914 AD
Volume: 520, Astronomical Heritage of the Middle East
Page: 33
Authors: Hady, A. A.
Abstract: The Islamic civilization reached its peak during the period 969–1171 AD prevailing over a vast area that extended from Andalusia in the West to North India in the East. At that time, Egypt achieved remarkable progress in science, particularly in the fields of Astronomy, Medicine, and Engineering. Astronomy was, and still is, of importance from a religious point of view, since it marks the birth of the Moon, and consequently the beginning of every month of the Islamic calendar; accordingly, Islamic feasts are timed. Astronomers also give the exact time of the five prayers of Muslims for each day of the year. This paper will show the work of astronomers Ibn Yunus al-Misri (952–1009 AD), Hassan Ibn al-Haytham (965–1038 AD), and Ali Ibn Ridwan (998–1061 AD). The astronomical observatories at Cairo during the period 969–1171 AD are included, and the El-Geyoushy and El-Mamoun observatories are described herein. In this paper, the work of the leading astronomers of the above mentioned period is further reported, with reference to the observatories and astronomers during Ottoman period until 1914 AD. We will review the astronomical observatories erected in this period, especially the observatories in Bulac, Abbassia, and Helwan, all located around Cairo.
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