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Paper: Asynchonous Binaries, Energy Dissipation and Turbulent Viscosity
Volume: 496, Living Together: Planets, Host Stars and Binaries
Page: 264
Authors: Koenigsberger, G.; Brott, I.; Moreno, E.
Abstract: Stars in binary systems are generally modeled under the assumption that they are in an equilibrium configuration and, in particular, that the stellar rotation angular velocity equals the orbital angular velocity. However, asynchronous rotation is more common than generally recognized. All eccentric systems undergo asynchronous rotation and the angular velocity of rotation of many stars in circular orbits differs from that of the orbital angular velocity. Combined with the external gravitational potential, this asynchronous rotation causes shearing motions in the stellar layers and, given that the stellar material is not inviscid, kinetic energy is dissipated into heat. In 1968, Zdeněk Kopal addressed the question of whether the tidal shear energy dissipation rates, Ė, in asynchronous binaries can lead to an internal stellar structure that differs from that in an analogous single star. His calculation, based on the assumption that the viscosity is purely molecular, led him to conclude that Ė is insignificant and therefore has no effect on the internal stellar structure. However, Kopal also pointed out the important caveat that if turbulent viscosity prevailed, then larger values of Ė would obtain. We have revisited the question of the magnitude of Ė using the TIDES code (Moreno 2011) and examined its dependence on viscosity for several layers of a ZAMS 30 M star with a 20 M companion in a 6-day eccentric orbit. We find that conditions for turbulent viscosity are favored when the star expands after leaving the main sequence. For example, when the 30 M star is 5 Myr old and rotating near its corrotation speed, turbulent viscosity might be expected to appear in all layers at distances greater than 60% of the maximum stellar radius. As a consequence, tidal shear energy dissipation may constitute a non-negligible effect in a large number of close binary systems, with possibly interesting consequences for their internal structure and evolution.
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