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Paper: Evolution of Spiral Arm Pitch Angle
Volume: 480, Structure and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies
Page: 130
Authors: Shields, D. W.; Henderson, C.; Davis, B. L.; Johns, L.; Berrier, J. C.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J.; Seigar, M. S.; Lacy, C. H. S.
Abstract: We measured the pitch angles of more than 100 spiral galaxies with redshifts less than 1.2 in the GOODS North and South fields. We compared the pitch angles to those of a complete sample of local galaxies. Spiral arm pitch angles seem to have increased (that is, spirals have loosened) since z = 0.5. Selection and measurement biases make more distant statistics untrustworthy.
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