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Paper: New Observations of Polar Ring Galaxies
Volume: 197, XVth IAP Meeting Dynamics of Galaxies: From the Early Universe to the Present
Page: 119
Authors: Sparke, L. S.; Cox, A. L.
Abstract: Polar ring systems are `multi-spin galaxies' (Rubin 1994): different components have discrepant axes of rotation. The outer gas-rich material in polar orbit appears to be a late acquisition; it shares neither the rotation nor the symmetry axis of the early-type inner galaxy, which contains little gas and consists largely of old stars. These systems represent galaxy mergers that are not yet completed.
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