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Paper: B[e] Stars with Warm Dust: Revealing the Nature of Unclassified B[e] Stars and Expanding the Family
Volume: 355, Stars With the B[e] Phenomenon
Page: 315
Authors: Miroshnichenko, A.S.; Bernabei, S.; Bjorkman, K.S.; Chentsov, E.L.; Klochkova, V.G.; Gray, R.O.; Levato, H.; Grosso, M.; Hinkle, K.H.; Kuratov, K.S.; Kusakin, A.V.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Perea Calderon, J.V.; Polcaro, V.F.; Viotti, R.F.; Norci, L.; Manset, N.; Men'shchikov, A.B.; Rudy, R.J.; Lynch, D.K.; Venturini, C.C.; Mazuk, S.; Puetter, R.C.; Perry, R.B.; Gandet, T.L.
Abstract: Until recently, unclassified B[e] stars represented half of the entire B[e] group. Our study of these objects with strong emission-line spectra and IRAS fluxes, decreasing toward longer wavelengths, resulted in a suggestion that they currently form dust in their envelopes. The objects have been tentatively called B[e] stars with warm dust (B[e]WD). Their luminosity range (∼3 orders of magnitude) is much larger compared to previous suggestions that dust formation occurs only near very luminous hot stars. A significant fraction of B[e]WD are recognized or suspected binaries. The group has been expanded with both previously detected hot emission-line stars with IR fluxes, typical for confirmed B[e]WD, and new candidates, found in recent all-sky surveys. Currently the number of B[e]WD members and candidates is ∼60 with an opportunity to find more in existing stellar catalogs. Main observational and physical properties of
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