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Paper: The Compact Planetary Nebula B[e] Star Hen 2-90
Volume: 355, Stars With the B[e] Phenomenon
Page: 125
Authors: Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; de Araujo, F.X.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.
Abstract: We present a study of the optical spectrum of the fascinating B[e] star Hen 2–90 based on new high-resolution observations taken with FEROS at the ESO 1.52m telescope in La Silla (Chile). The recent HST image of Hen 2–90 (Sahai et al. 2002) reveals a bipolar, highly ionized region, a neutral disk-like structure seen almost perfectly edge-on, and an intermediate region of moderate ionization. The slits of our observations cover the same innermost region of Hen 2–90 as the HST image, which allows us to combine the observations. Our spectra contain a huge amount of permitted and forbidden emission lines of atoms in different stages of ionization. In addition, the line wings deliver velocity information of the emitting region. We find correlation between the different ionization states of the elements and the velocities derived from the line profiles: the highly ionized atoms have the highest outflow velocity, while the neutral lines have the lowest. When combining the velocity information with the HST image of Hen 2–90, it seems that a non-spherical stellar wind model is a good option to explain the ionization and spatial distribution of the circumstellar material. Our modeling of the forbidden emission lines results in strong evidence for Hen 2–90 being a compact planetary nebulae that has undergone a superwind phase of high, non-spherical mass loss, most probably triggered by a central star that was rotating with about 80% of the critical velocity. We find a total mass loss rate during this superwind phase on the order of 3 × 10−5MSolaryr−1.
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