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Paper: Single Massive Stars at the Critical Rotational Velocity: Possible Links with Be and B[e] Stars
Volume: 355, Stars With the B[e] Phenomenon
Page: 27
Authors: Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.
Abstract: Using single star models including the effects of shellular rotation with and without magnetic fields, we show that massive stars at solar metallicity with initial masses lower than about 20-25 MSolar and with an initial rotation above ~ 350 km s−1 likely reach the critical velocity during their Main-Sequence phase. This results from the efficient outwards transport of angular momentum by the meridional circulation. This could be a scenario for explaining the Be stars. After the Main-Sequence phase, single stars in this mass range can again reach the critical limit when they are on a blue loop after a red supergiant phase (Heger & Langer 1998). This might be a scenario for the formation of B[e] stars, however as discussed by Langer & Heger (1998), this scenario would predict a short B[e] phase (only some 104 years) with correspondingly small amounts of mass lost.
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