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Paper: From Biggest and Coolest to Smallest and Hottest: Proto-Planetary Nebula Transitional Objects
Volume: 412, The Biggest, Baddest, Coolest Stars
Page: 207
Authors: Hrivnak, B.J.
Abstract: Proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are objects in transition between the asymptotic giant branch (AGB; star is “biggest and coolest”) and the planetary nebula (PN; star is “smallest and hottest”) stages in the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass stars. As such, they possess some of the properties of each of these stages. The central stars of PPNs reveal AGB nucleosynthesis and continue to pulsate. The nebular shapes of PPNs are similar to those of PNs and they show some similar nebular chemistry. However, there are distinct differences that arise during this short-lived transitional phase (103 yr) which make the study of PPNs important in its own right. The properties of PPNs are reviewed, with emphasis on the author’s own research.
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