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Paper: Periodic and non-periodic processes in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, and their relevance for climate prediction
Volume: 292, Interplay of Periodic, Cyclic and Stochastic Variability in Selected Areas of the H-R Diagram
Page: 433
Authors: Bengtsson, L.
Abstract: The climate of the Earth is dominated by non-linear processes caused by hydrodynamical instabilities in atmospheric and ocean circulation and complex feedback mechanisms in the climate. This gives rise to a very complex system of internal variations with substantial amplitudes on time scales from days to several decades in the climate system, viz. extra-tropical cyclones on time scales of 3-5 days, extra-tropical weather patterns on time scales of 2-3 weeks, quasi-biannual oscillations with a time-scale of around 26 months, El-Nino events with a time scale of 3-5 years, and much longer fluctuations in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, having time scales of up to many decades.
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