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Paper: Evolution of Solar Wind Heavy Ions over the Solar Cycle
Volume: 484, Outstanding Problems in Heliophysics: From Coronal Heating to the Edge of the Heliosphere
Page: 104
Authors: Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
Abstract: Solar wind composition has been shown to effectively discriminate between different types of solar wind, including slow, fast and ICME related wind. The composition reflects the properties of the source regions of the wind in the corona and their evolution. We present the systematic and comprehensive analysis of the ionic and elemental composition observed on ACE over solar cycle 23 from 2000 until 2010. During this period, the Sun evolved through solar maximum to solar minimum. We find significantly lower C, O, and Fe charge states as well as a 50% decrease in heavy ion abundances (He, C, O, Si, Fe) relative to H during this transition towards solar minimum. We also examined the FIP bias. We consider the implications of these findings for solar wind models and for identification of the fast and slow wind.
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