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Paper: Bolometers for Submillimeter and Millimeter Astronomy
Volume: 278, NAIC-NRAO School on Single-dish Radio Astronomy: Techniques and Applications
Page: 463
Authors: Holland, Wayne; Duncan, William; Griffin, Matthew
Abstract: The past decade has seen considerable progress in the development of bolometric detectors for submillimeter- and millimeter-wave astronomy. With the introduction of imaging arrays these wavebands have been undergoing a major revolution with many new and exciting discoveries being made in almost all areas of astronomy. In this paper the basic principles of bolometry will be explained, together with the ``figures of merit'' that characterize performance. Particular examples will focus on using wide-bandwidth devices in conditions where the atmospheric background can change on short timescales. Practical devices -- from single pixels to the current imaging arrays -- will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the need for ultra-low temperature operation for sky-background limited performance. Examples will be given of current instrument performance on ground-based telescopes, including the issue of optimum coupling of the small detector element to a large telescope aperture. The development of integrated filled arrays of many thousand pixel cameras bodes well for the future. The new generation of both ground-based and space-borne instruments will also be described, as well as other exciting prospects for the future.
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