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Paper: Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques
Volume: 278, NAIC-NRAO School on Single-dish Radio Astronomy: Techniques and Applications
Page: 313
Authors: Jewell, P. R.
Abstract: Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is discussed in detail. Topics include specific calibration techniques such as the hot/sky chopper wheel method, variations such as hot/cold/sky schemes, sky tipping calibration, and the possibilities of subreflector-based calibration sources. Calibration loss factors including rear and forward spillover and error beam losses are described and illustrated. The TA*, TR*, and TMB temperature scales are defined. Techniques for absolute calibration are also discussed.
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