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Paper: A Chandra X-ray Study of NGC 1068 (abstract only)
Volume: 262, The High Energy Universe at Sharp Focus: Chandra Science
Page: 211
Authors: Young, A. J.; Wilson, A.; Shopbell, P.
Abstract: We report sub arc-second resolution X-ray imaging-spectroscopy of the archetypal type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observations reveal the detailed structure and spectra of the 13 kpc-extent nebulosity previously imaged at lower resolution with ROSAT. The Chandra image shows a bright, compact source coincident with the brightest radio and optical emission; this source is extended b y ~160 pc in the same direction as the nuclear optical line and radio continuum emission. Bright X-ray emission extends ~500 pc to the NE and coincides with the NE radio lobe and gas in the narrow line region. The large-scale emission shows trailing spiral arms and other structures. There is a very strong correlation between the X-ray emission and the high excitation ionized gas seen in HST and ground-based [0 III] images. Spectra have been obtained for the nucleus, the bright region ~400 pc to the NE and 8 areas in the very extended emission. The spectra are inconsistent with hot plasma models. Models involving smooth continua plus emission lines provide excellent descriptions of the spectra The emission lines cannot be uniquely identified with the present spectral resolution but are consistent with the brighter lines seen in the XMM-Newton RGS spectrum below 2 keV> Hard X-ray emission, including an iron line, is seen extending 2.2 kpc NE and SW of the nucleus. Lower surface brightness, hard X-ray emission, with a tentatively detected iron line extends 5.5 kpc to the west and south. Our results, when taken together with the XMM-Newton RGS spectrum, suggest photo-ionization and fluorescence of gas by radiation from the Seyfert nucleus to several kpc from it. The starburst is not the dominant source of the extended X-rays.
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