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Paper: Supernovae and the Intergalactic Medium
Volume: 240, Gas and Galaxy Evolution: A Conference in Honor of the 20th Anniversary of the VLA
Page: 355
Authors: Binney, J.
Abstract: An energetic argument implies that a galaxy like the Milky Way is blowing a powerful wind that carries away most of the heavy elements currently synthesized and has impacted the intergalactic medium (IGM) out to at least 180 kpc. Rich clusters of galaxies appear to be closed systems in which most heavy elements are ejected from galaxies. More supernovae (SNe) are required than the yield of core-collapse SNe from a Salpeter initial mass function. X-ray observations imply that the IGM in groups and clusters has been strongly preheated. SNe probably cannot supply the required energy, which must come from active galactic nuclei.
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