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Paper: Hydrodynamics of Antisymmetric Nebulae
Volume: 313, Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae III
Page: 419
Authors: Icke, V.
Abstract: Balick's 'generalized interacting stellar winds' model posits that the bipolar shape of most PNe is due to the interaction between a very fast tenuous outflow, and a disk-shaped denser atmosphere left over from an earlier slow phase of mass loss. Analytical and numerical work shows that this mechanism can explain cylindrically symmetric nebulae. However, many circumstellar nebulae have a 'point-symmetric' shape. I demonstrate that these can be easily reproduced by a two-wind model in which the confining disk is warped.
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