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Paper: Hypernovae, Black-Hole-Forming Supernovae, and First Stars
Volume: 332, The Fate of the Most Massive Stars
Page: 374
Authors: Nomoto, K.; Tominaga, N.; Umeda, H.; Maeda, K.; Ohkubo, T.; Deng, J.; Mazzali, P.A.
Abstract: Recent studies of core-collapse supernovae have revealed the existence of two distinct classes of massive supernovae (SNe): 1) very energetic SNe (Hypernovae), whose kinetic energy (KE) exceeds 1052 erg, about 10 times the KE of normal core-collapse SNe, and 2) very faint and low energy SNe (E ≤ 0.5 × 1051 erg; Faint supernovae). These two classes of supernovae are likely to be "black-hole-forming" supernovae with rotating or non-rotating black holes. We compare their nucleosynthesis yields with the abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars to identify the Pop III (or first) supernovae. We show that the EMP stars, especially the C-rich type, are likely to be enriched by black-hole- forming supernovae.
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