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Paper: Supernova Asymmetries and Pulsar Kicks -- Views on Controversial Issues
Volume: 332, The Fate of the Most Massive Stars
Page: 363
Authors: Janka, H.-Th.; Scheck, L.; Kifonidis, K.; Mueller, E.; Plewa, T.
Abstract: Two- and three-dimensional simulations demonstrate that hydrodynamic instabilities can lead to low-mode (l = 1, 2) asymmetries of the fluid flow in the neutrino-heated layer behind the supernova shock. This provides a natural explanation for aspherical mass ejection and for pulsar recoil velocities even in excess of 1000 km/s. We propose that the bimodality of the pulsar velocity distribution might be a consequence of a dominant l = 1 mode in case of the fast component, while higher-mode anisotropy characterizes the postshock flow and SN ejecta during the birth of the slow neutron stars. We argue that the observed large asymmetries of supernovae and the measured high velocities of young pulsars therefore do not imply rapid rotation of the iron core of the progenitor star, nor do they require strong magnetic fields to play a crucial role in the explosion. Anisotropic neutrino emission from accretion contributes to the neutron star acceleration on a minor level, and pulsar kicks do not make a good case for non-standard neutrino physics in the nascent neutron star.
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